The turbeh of the seven brothers is a jedler tekke in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1879, Sejfulah Iblizović founded the jedler tekke of the Kashbendi Order. This was initially a room for the guard of the turbeh of the seven brothers, which was built along with the turbeh by Sulejman-pasha Skopljak around 1815. The tradition says that some of the sheiks were buried there, who came with Sultan Fatih.
Later, two dervishes were buried there, suspected and innocently executed on the occasion of the theft of money from the Sarajevo pagans in 1494. There were buried four captains also, whom Mustafa-pasha Dalbatan decided to destroy, because they did not inform in a timely manner of the army of Prince Eugen of Savoy in Sarajevo in 1697.
In the morning of the November 27th, 1947, the Eternal flame fascinated people of Sarajevo by its beauty. The flame it was carrying, and still carries today, is a reminder of the liberators of Sarajevo in the Second World War. People from Sarajevo, people who do not accept monuments easily, accepted this monument very quickly.
In that period, when there was no disco in the city and cafes on each step, the Eternal Fire became a gathering place for young people who called it a “burning tire”. This simple, yet very beautiful symbol of Sarajevo is work of Juraj Najhart. Located at the facade of the building that was originally Grand Hotel, and then the residence of Zemaljska banka, the Social Book Service, today it would be the seat of the Payment Bureau. In the heart of the Sarajevo Walking Zone, this monument connects the three streets: Mula Mustafe Bašeskije, Titova and Ferhadija. It consists of a plaque with the text which reads.
The courage and jointly spilled blood of fighters of the Bosnian Serb, Croat, Montenegrin and Serbian brigades of the famous Yugoslav army, joint efforts and victims of the Sarajevo patriots Serbs, Muslims and Croats, Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina was freed.
The position of a woman in society changed as time changed. Women in the Middle Ages haddifferent roles. They could be wives, mothers, nuns, and some women took up more social positions, such as the queen. Men always had a prominent role in society, and women were in a shadow, seemingly invisible, often a supply of peace and a means of exchange. Regardless of whether they are noblemen or “ordinary” women, they were considered as father’s, but also as husband’s property. The rights of women differed depending on class affiliation and marital status. Women in that period did not have the right to be the part of the Parliament, they were deprived of their education and all public functions, and their only task was to dedicate themselves to the household. As such, women did not have the right to vote. Marriage as the foundation of society played an important role. Marriage was pre-arranged, and women become man’s property, without the right to vote, because as they said then the only good woman was a silent woman. A woman couldn’t decide anything because there was a thought that males were smarter than females.
Now imagine the period of Middle Ages, the great castles, chambers, servants, the glittering gold, and all the benefits that bring money and power. Imagine impeccable suits, big and long dresses, and expensive jewelery. Imagine a woman. A woman who came to this home without choosing itand wanting being in it. A woman who had to fight for her right to vote, her position, respect, but also her love. As such was Queen Katarina, the woman who remained without her husband, children and homeland. She experienced the destiny of her people and her family, and she went to refuge to save the same people. In Middle Ages it was not easy being a woman, especially not at the court. As much as it seemed to us that they lived in splendor and well-being, that they were valued and respected, it was not easy to be a woman from the royal palace. Many of them did not know what love and freedom were. They got married for political and social reasons. Tha’s how it was with queen Katarina. Her marriage was a guarantee of peace between her father Stjepan Kosača and the future husband Stjepan Tomaš. She married quite late, because her father repelled the plague until someone showed up enough for his interests. Somebody like the Bosnian king. Katarina’s marriage was supposed to make a political balance in those areas. The wedding was performed by the Catholic Department in the court of Mihodra. As a well-educated nobleman, she married her to goodness, toughness and humility. She followed her husband on all travels, and many churches were built together, including the Church of St. Katarina in Jajce.
Then life of Queen Katarina was in the shadow of two powerful men, her father and her husband, and therefore there are not many details about her reign. There are only stories and legends that say that she loved her people a lot. Women learned household chores, and the most beautiful relationship. Very young, at age 37, she became widowed with two children, son Sigismund and daughter Katarina. Stjepan Tomašević, son of Stjepan Tomaš and Vojača, confesses to Katarina as a queen and her mother. Queen Katarina had difficult times. After empty promises and agreements, the Sultan had moved to the Bosnian kingdom. Bobovac fell quickly into the hands of the Ottomans. King Stjepan Tomašević was in Jajce, but after he realized that he could not go there for a long time, he went to Ključ. After some time spent in Ključ, because of the lack of weapons and food, the king decided to surrender on condition that the Sultan’s army guaranteed his life. However, the king was executed in Jajce in 1463. While winning, Bosnian Queen Katarina was in Kozograd. When she heard of her people’s guilt, she decided to go south to Konjic and then to Dalmacija. In one of the parades the queen went with the escort, and in the other were her children. Later, that decision became disastrous. The hostile army stopped the procession in which her children were and captured them. The queen learned this late, only in Dubrovnik. Just like every mother and queen, she was too, in a great pain for her children, but also for the disaster that has struck her people. She was a mother and a queen. She was trying to find out about her children for a long time, but everything was unsuccessful. Then, the queen went to Dubrovnik where she expected to find help and arm of salvation, but to the people of Dubrovnik it was not appropriate for them to find the queen of the lost kingdom, and they were most afraid of the conquest of Sultan Mehmed II. The Queen went to Rome where she found comfort in her faith. She became a member of the Third Order of the Franciscan Order and helped the sick. She spent all those years in sorrow and grief for her children and her homeland. She found out that her children converted into Islam. Later, it would be known that Sigismund became Ishak-beg, called Kraljević, and that he received a lesser faction in Asia. There was no historical data about her daughter, Katarina. Whether she married, where she lived, how and where she died, nothing is known. With all these concerns, the suits for children and homeland, the queen falls short on the patient’s bed and expresses her desire to write her will. In the will she wrote that she left her kingdom to her children if they find them and if they accept the faith of her father. However, she was aware that this might never happen, and therefore left the kingdom to the Holy See.
Queen Katarina died 5 days after writing her last wish, October 25, 1478. She was buried in the Franciscan church of the Blessed Virgin Mary Ara Coeli. On her grave the figure of a proud queen with a crown was displayed showing the coats of arms of the Bosnian state and the Kosaca family, and at the bottom the inscription was written by a Bosnian woman. A pious, intelligent woman, the great-hearted queen, left a deep trail among her people, and especially among women. The face of Queen Catherine depicts the sad and tragic destiny of many women who have lost their husbands, their children, and their homeland. There is hope for never repeating such events and no woman will experience the suffering and the pain that Queen Catherine has been fighting against.
There are many stories about the past days today, and perhaps for a few years the story about the way of life then will be extinct.
Today, as we are naught about ourselves, our traditions and cultures are turning to the west, and we feel a disgrace to tell someone where we are from and what we have done in our
lives. West doesn't want us, if it wanted us it would do much to help us, and did not offer only what violates our Bosnian-Herzegovinian society. Many of the sofras with the sweetest foods we ate are outdone and forgotten. The smell of hot cake and somun replaces white bread, so today we are healthy. And I – I will never be embarrassed from where I am, I am not ashamed of my grandma and her colorful scarfs, my mom and her colorful “dimije”. We don’t have time for our closest relatives or friends, we’d rather sit at home, chat on facebook and apologize for not having time for them rather than to go to coffee and talk in person, but that cost us, there is no time, and we have to buy it. Our elders have left many things to us in “amanet”, they are no longer here today, but there are many memories, tips and some vivid photographs that remind us of some good times of the past.
Music is an universal language that everyone understands. There’s a lot things in music that positively affects people and improves their mood. It is a special type of art in which an interpreter expresses exactly what can not be said, and what is hard to keep silent. An old folk says that musicians are the ones who make a lot of people happy, but at the same time they are people who do not like neighbors, because they are constantly disturbing peace. We, in our neighborhood, here in Kakanj, in the vicinity of Sarajevo, have found the real musical family Kozlo, and, at least to us, the authors of this article, music performed by this young artist does not bother us.
Since olden times, the Kozlo family spoke the universal language of music. Tradition, culture, chores and traditions of music were passed on to new generations. One of the youngest members of this music family is Zerina Kozlo. A young interpreter and artist who presents her talent through playing a flute, quite well. She started playing a flute in the seventh grade, after her friend suggested her that idea. She thought she would give up very quickly because she was in her teenage years, however her life turned her in the other direction, where she started slowly moving forward, building herself as an artist, with a continuous work and development. In the seventh grade of elementary school she joined ‘Rudarska glazba’ in Kakanj, whose member she’s even today.
She attended the ‘Music School’ in Kakanj, and is currently attending ‘Srednja zubotehnicka skola’ in Zenica. Attending the ‘Elementary music school’ in Kakanj, she had a couple of performances at the shows in Kakanj and Zenica, where she was noted by the ‘Rudarska glazba’ conductor. To her great surprise, he offered her to join ‘Rudarska glazba’. Unfortunately, she did not have the opportunity to present her artistic skills at the competitions.
Asked if there might be sensations from Kakanj, such as ‘2Cellos’, Zerina responded a bit more modestly, that it’s a big challenge, because they are a world-recognized duo, but that she has something else planned. Her plan is to join, with a couple of flutes, and make a band that would try to play famous ex Yu melodies and songs, and to make a breakthrough in the Blakans. She says it’s realistic because she tried to play some famous songs on flute, and since it’s a very innovative way of performing, she thinks people would be pleased to listen to her performances.
From the significant performances that Zerina had, she emphasized the performance at a concert of ‘Film Music’ organized in Kakanj and for which there was a great interest. It’s not a classic concert, but a slightly different performance, her father said that it’s actually a musical. The excellent performance of the musical has triggered many stories across the region, so young artists received a call for performances in Zagreb and other cities. However, financial resources enabled them to organize the musical in only a couple of nearby cities.
We talked to Zerina in Sarajevo, where we also recorded a promotional video clip worth watching and listening to!.
The Sarajevo mosque, with an unusual name – Rogo Zade, was built in 1660, according to the inscription on the door of the mosque, and its total surface is just over 50 m². This is the smallest mosque in the region and Europe, but also one of the smallest in the world. It was built under the Sarajevo settlement Sedrenik, in the Rogina 1 street. In fact, the mosque was restored in 1972, and before that, its surface was even smaller than the current one. As there are numerous mosques in Sarajevo’s nearby settlements, Sedrenik and Grlić hill, the Rogo Zade mosque is visited by a very small number of believers, and it is like a symbol of the city.
The mosque also houses a turban (Muslim cemetery) with three mezzars. It is believed that Hungarian Muslims were buried in them, who came to these areas 300 years ago, fleeing from the inquisition, in the (then) Hungary. The legend further states that a part of the Hungarian Muslims settled in Sarajevo, above the Sumbul mahala and near the mosque, built by Rogo Zade. It is believed that among the immigrants from Hungary there were three rich families, who left Hungary, leaving all their behind. The legend says that some members of these families were buried just outside the mosque of the Rogo Zade, where the people later built them turbe.
Around the mosque there is a cemetery (muslim cemetery) with around 20 ‘nišans’ (monuments). In one of the tombs there are the remains of the famous Bosniak historian Sidki Muvakkit Hadzihuseinovic, author of the famous work “Tarih-i-Bosna”, written in Turkish, published under the title “History of Bosnia” in Sarajevo, 1999.
History and many historical books teach us that the Sarajevo assassination was the cause of the outbreak of the First World War. However, many historians agree that this event when Gavrilo Princip (a member of the movement called Mlada Bosna) on June 28, 1914 fired bullets and killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia, launched a series of events that had the beginning of the First World war. The secret organization of Mlada Bosna aimed at firing the Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina by rebellions and assassinations. We are talking about historical facts since 103 years ago, and historians say no assassination in contemporary history has left such a mark as the Sarajevo assassination.
Visit of the Austro-Hungarian crown prince to military garrisons
The Austro-Hungarian eponymous Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia had to arrive in Sarajevo (at the invitation of the then Governor of Bosnia, General Oscar Potiorek) to visit military garrisons and oversee the military exercises of Austro-Hungarian soldiers. They arrived in Sarajevo by train from Metković (Croatia) on June 27, 2014. They were accommodated in the hotel Bosna (today’s complex of Hotel Ilidža) in Ilidža. An official dinner was held in the evening on June 27, 2014. On June 28, 2014 Archbishop Franz Ferdinand ordered his driver not to rush with the intent to look more closely at the city. A solemn ceremony was organized in the Council. The guests traveled along Appel’s keel (now the Obala Kulina Bana).
The first attempt at the assassination failed when one of the pupils had failed to drop the bomb (which exploded beneath the car). The driver saw the thrown bomb and accelerated the vehicle.
The second thrown bomb was deadly
Automobile Gräf & Stift (where Franz Ferdinand and Sophia were killed today is located in a military museum in Vienna) with their guests arrived at the City Hall, where short reception was held. Then they went to the hospital to visit the wounded, they went to attack the bomb. They were driving the same route to the hospital when the driver made a fatal mistake and turned sharply into the narrow street of Franjo Jozef (today’s Green Berets Street). Although the driver tried to return the car back to Appel’s kay, the assassin who was on the corner of these two streets fired a fatal hate and killed the Austro-Hungarian throne, Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia.
The assassin Gavrilo Princip and other members of the Mlada Bosna Movement, who participated in the preparation of the assassinations, were arrested. They were sentenced to life imprisonment. Most of them died in prisons throughout the Austro-Hungarian Empire. After the First World War ended, the remains of the assassins were exhumed and buried at the St. Marko’s Church in Koševo. The Kapela of the Vidovdan heroes was built at this cemetery in memory of the members of the Mlada Bosna movement.
At the place of the death of the Archduke and his wife, there is a memorial plaque. In the nearby building, the Sarajevo Museum was built. The period of Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina is at the same time the main topic of this museum.
Though it was neither the largest nor the most luxurious, as you see yourself, the room of Austrian Heir to the Throne Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophia, however, has been decorated with charm, elegance and splendor. It is well known that Franz Ferdinand and his spouse Sofia came to Sarajevo , among other things, to visit Austrian troops on military maneuvers. Although the visit was supposed to be short, the accommodation was a splendid at that time.
You can notice that the interior of the room is warm. When we look at furniture and all the other objects in the room, it looks like we’re present there. We have the feeling that the furniture is so unique and expensive, that we are simply afraid of thinking of sitting on a royal sofa or using tea with biscuits from royal china cupcakes.
In this beautiful room, the Crown Prince Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia spent their last night.
The complex value of tombs called “stećak” in cultural, artistic, architectural, religious and historical sense is unique, not only in the Balkans, but throughout the whole Europe as well as in the world. Even today they are inexhaustible source of inspiration and despite many researches, mysticity of these tombs makes no one apathetic.
‘Stećak is for me what it is not for the others, what others did not know to see. Yes, it is a stone, but is also a word; it is earth, but it is also sky; it is substance, but it is also spirit; it is scream, but it is also the song; it is death, but it is also life; it is the past, but it is also the future.’ – Mak Dizdar
The synthesis of language and written forms, faith, customs and culture is sealed into the mysticity of stećak and they represent one of the most important medieval Bosnian legacy. Most of these tombs originate from the period between 12th and 16th centuries and are located in Bosnia and Herzegovina (there are 59.593 tombs at 2687 places), Croatia (4447), Montenegro (3049) and Serbia (2267).
One of the most important characteristics of tombs on the location of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the fact that all three church organizations had the same medieval understanding of death. It is logical to assume that every of the church organizations at that time cared for their deceased by their traditional patterns, but it can be considered safe that the tombs were used as the tombstones in the Catholic, Orthodox and Bosnian Church.
Ornaments and decoration on tombs are in various shapes, but they cannot help us with defining decedent’s religion, but sometimes texts on the tombs can discover to which one of three church organization that existed in medieval Bosnia and Hum (later Hercegovina) decedent belonged.
Texts on tombs called “epitafi” are extremely important for the study of language and they are written in bosančica. They show symbolism that characterizes medieval art, but also art from romanticism era and gothic art, and the whole life of decedent’s life is tagged, his abilities, how he died, his relation to death and love towards earth.
Thanks to many legends about stećak, they are not forgotten through the time. In 1950 in Paris was held exhibition of Yugoslav medieval painting and plastic and on that exhibition were presented tombs. After that exhibition the interest for this phenomenon characteristic for medieval Bosnia and Herzegovina suddenly grew between scientists and public.
“Stone sleepers”, as Dizdar names them, ensued in different occasions and are mostly related to the medieval location of Bosnia and Hum. They represent an authenticity and a long tradition of Bosnian – Herzegovinian culture and they are worthy historical heritage which makes us emotional and inspirational.
The motive of a lily as a symbol of rich medieval history of our country has always supervened to admiration and respect. Even during a firm rule of the Kotromanić dynasty, on whose escutcheon it found its own sublime place, the lily was the object of great obeisances by neighbouring monarchs, but also hostile rulers.
Under a dark blue shield with six golden lilies separated with perfectly withdrawn white line, army of the Bosnian kingdom spread its boundaries to the sea and east. From the palace on Bobovac were sent authoritative and respected messages to whom the western and eastern primaries obeyed without hesitation. Until that age the Bosnian lily testified the most expansive period of the Bosnian statehood and the existence of the country in which we live nowadays.
Lilium bosniacum, from which everything started, got a special place on the botanical map of the lily family thanks to the specific look and origin, because it cannot be found nowhere else except beautiful Bosnian mountains. Kraljeva Sutjeska jealously keeps memories on that golden period in its Franciscan monastery. Despite many temptations and challenges, the Bosnian Franciscans succeeded to keep many worthy artifacts of medieval times through many centuries. On many artifacts are found lilies. Coins which were used to make transactions, carefully crafted and used, has survived to this day as silent witness of the age when the Bosnian statehood was created.
Entering this little “village” which belongs to the Kakanj municipality, you will find the silence that is interrupted by the mild gutter of the untouched Trstionica river, which divides Sutjeska into two parts – the old and the new one. The silence lives there for a while and it becomes louder, because the locals of this place are older generations of people. The youth goes to other cities to find their luck. Walking on the road along its flow, on the left side you will be welcomed by autochthonous appearance and splendor of one of the oldest mosques in Bosnia and Herzegovina, whose building was ordered by Sultan Mehmed El – Fatih.
Maybe you will not feel the royal spirit in this small place immediately, but with entering in the space around the Monastery, a gentle glance of Queen Katarina from replica of her throne, which is placed at the foot of the old walls of the former glorious castle, will tell you the proud history of Sutjeska. You expect that she is going to greet you gently every moment, because it seems like she is there, like in the period when the feeling of belonging to the famous Bosnian crown was spread out of here. The high rocks that from the north side surround Kraljeva Sutjeska make the gate that upstream along the Trstionica river leads to the even higher Bobovac. Hills between these two places observe every curious passenger. Bosnia was born and dressed in this area. The Bosnian signet was here hit, fed and defended. And it will exist, if God gives!